The activation-synthesis model of dreaming was proposed in 1977 by Robert McCarley and J. Allan Hobson of Harvard Medical School. Examining the purely physiological correlates of dreaming, Hobson and McCarley believed they had put forward a hypothesis that refuted the notion that dreams are meaningful, especially as this notion was formulated by Sigmund Freud and promulgated in the tradition of dream interpretation he initiated.
During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the stage of sleep most closely connected with dreaming, a portion of the brain called the pons (located in the primitive hindbrain) generates electrical signals that go to many different brain areas, including those associated with motor activities, sensory activities, and conscious thought. Hobson and McCarley hypothesized that one of the effects of this electrical activity is to send a series of essentially random images, feelings, and so forth to the higher mental centers of the forebrain. This is the “activation” stage of the theory.
In normal waking consciousness, the fore- brain sorts through various kinds of internal and external sensory input to create a meaningful experience of the world. Faced with a barrage of disconnected inputs during REM sleep, the higher mental centers attempt to impose order on the incoming messages, creating whatever narrative structure dreams have. This is the “synthesis” stage of the theory. Many dreams are just masses of incoherent images representing incoming groups of signals that the brain was simply not able to synthesize.
For anyone who has been exasperated by the convolutions of Freudian or other schools of dream interpretation, the activation-synthesis theory has a certain iconoclastic appeal because it dismisses dreams as just so much nonsense. How- ever, because almost everyone has had at least a few truly insightful dreams, the theory is ultimately unsatisfying. Also, on a purely physiological level, it is an incomplete theory because it does not offer an explanation for the dreams that occur during non-REM sleep.... Dreampedia
(Home coming) The arrival home of a traveller in a dream signifies relief after sustaining depression and distress, or it could mean recovering from an illness, or regaining a stronghold.
If one finds himself depressed and annoyed with the arrival of the traveller in the dream, then his dream may signify having to ask for something from someone, or needing others, or confronting the unavoidable.... Islamic Dream Interpretation
An arrival is an event that marks the start of new situations. Whether the dreamer arrives someplace, or someone or something arrives suddenly, this dream could be caused by a prolonged state of lethargy and monotony. Perhaps, the dreamer desires an unexpected event to change the course of his life. ... The Big Dictionary of Dreams
To dream that you are participating in a carnival, portends that you are soon to enjoy some unusual pleasure or recreation.
A carnival when masks are used, or when incongruous or clownish figures are seen, implies discord in the home; business will be unsatisfactory and love unrequited. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation
If you see a carnival, but are not participating, it’s an indication you’re going through a period of depression. Get stuck on a carnival ride, and it’s an indication your life is too filled with the ups and downs of daily stress.... Tryskelion Dream Interpretation
The time, or the age, or period of development where “anything” goes, where you can be “somebody else.” Merriment and being carefree, but also a warning about pretense.
A dream about carnival points either to the need to stop pretense, to take off your mask (the persona, and show the true Self). Or it could be a message to be more outgoing and have more fun.
The image of the carnival often appears when you feel rigid and cut off from life. Particularly, when, in the dream, you are rejecting the carnival, you are denying your own wild and carefree side. Furthermore, carnival is also always connected to the Fool, a symbol that combines the absurd and the wise, and represents freedom. On the other hand, the fool is also somebody who, in a conventional sense, is unable to organize his everyday activities.
Folklore: Advancement.... Little Giant Encyclopedia
Being at a carnival may represent your concerns about fulfilling a desire for more amusement and fun.
A carnival may dircct you to look back at an event within the last few days that brought you fulfillment, or point to a colorful and magical experience that you enjoyed immensely... Ariadne's Book of Dream
If you dream of being at a carnival and grotesque figures in masks come within your vision, there will be either matrimonial discord or unsatisfactory developments in a love affair.... The Complete Dream Book
If you are in the midst of a carnival and you see unusual, and freakish, sights you will experience much discord at home, and if you also have a feeling of sorrow in the midst of all the laughter this portends a divorce.
To join in a carnival and enjoy yourself shows that you will be treated to some unusual entertainment in the near future.... Encyclopedia of Dreams
Dreams of a carnival are calling you to live life to its fullest and honor life’s rites of passage. This dream may also indicate that something exciting is forthcoming. There is also a shadow side to a carnival. This dream may be telling you to look beneath the surface of the “eye candy” in your life. Consider the feeling tone of this dream. See Mardi Gras.... Strangest Dream Explanations
This word is associated with the idea of orgy and a temporary return of the primeval chaos in order to release tensions. Therefore, if the dream provokes happiness, it is a sign that you should have more fun. Carnival also suggests the need to compensate and balance a life that is too tidy.... The Big Dictionary of Dreams
A tightly knit community of fringe society, a carnival creates an atmosphere of fun and escapism for the person who attends one. In a dream, this image may relate to either the event itself or the people responsible for creating the event.
If the sensation of the dream feels connected to being a guest at the carnival, then interpret this dream through the lens of play.
If the dream is more a behind-the-scenes experience, then you may be connecting to your rebellious nature.
Dreams of chivalry represent a desire to be rescued by a hero or to be the hero for someone. This dream is revealing your desire for balance and the exultation of the masculine and feminine principles within yourself. See Knight, Prince and Princess.... Strangest Dream Explanations
To dream that you are cultivating indicates the need to push out your ill thoughts.
To dream of cultivating is a symbol for weeding out ‘bad grass,’ which may stand for an uprooting of dire habits and bad intentions. This will allow you to grow as a person.... Dream Symbols and Analysis
To dream of being at a festival, denotes indifference to the cold realities of life, and a love for those pleasures that make one old before his time. You will never want, but will be largely dependent on others. ... Ten Thousand Dream Interpretation
To dream that you are at a festival suggests that you have become somewhat callous to the events around you. You are acting cynical and though you may not ask for others’ help, you are certainly relying on them.... Dream Symbols and Analysis
A festival is a church or religious feast, as in harvest festival. This was originally a pagan feast to honour the fertility gods and give thanks for a good harvest. It signifies a spiritual celebration.... Dream Meanings of Versatile
Psychological / emotional perspective: Festivals are very specific for a number of cultures. While in many cases they have become somewhat secularized, in dreams they mark the need for family or group gathering in order to celebrate an event or happening. Such rituals and occasions help to cement both individual and community relationships.... Dream Meanings of Versatile
Material aspects: Nowadays music and art festivals take the place of religious festivals. When we dream of such a festival it is the common bond and how we fit in which is important.... Dream Meanings of Versatile
To dream of being at a festival is a happy omen of good times with the people you care about. It can sometimes suggest that the dreamer is very dependent on others for their happiness.... My Dream Interpretation
You may need to rally all your resources into some creative direction and have your efforts acknowledged at a public level.
A festival is a large group of people all gathered for some specific focus. This has the implication that a great deal of your consciousness is focusing on one particular form of expression. In life, most festivals center on some sort of artistic or agrarian endeavor, implying that the more creative elements of your psyche are being stimulated. Consider what the theme of the festival is to get more clarity about what this dream means.... Complete Dictionary of Dreams
A minivan parked outside your home may announce a new little arnval who may make it necessary to get a new vehicle with more room. It represents family values and your concerns about meeting the needs of your family. It may refer to the frustrations in having to taxi family members around.... Ariadne's Book of Dream
To dream of intruding on anyone’s privacy, especially of entering a bedroom or bathroom without first receiving permission to do so, presages a serious misunderstanding with lover, husband, or wife.... The Complete Dream Book
To dream that you have no privacy, suggests that you are feeling exposed and unprotected. What are you trying to hide? Alternatively, it indicates that you are repressing your emotions and not allowing them to be fully expressed. You are worried that others will see the real you and criticize you.... My Dream Interpretation
Dreams of a rival are venting dreams that are assisting you in grappling with issues of competition and of being better than or less than. Consider that your rival is also your angel in that he/she is inspiring you to become your best and bringing your attention to your higher purpose. See Sports, Competition and Enemy.... Strangest Dream Explanations
Oneiric thoughts in which you appear fighting against your rivals reflect real life problems in a literal way. In this way, dreaming that you are winning signifies that you have decided to act. In contrast, if you only speak with them, the subconscious is suggesting that you resolve things peacefully. But, if the rival attacks you and you do not fight, it indicates that you not only accept defeat, but you also do not do anything to change the sign of the fight.... The Big Dictionary of Dreams
If your dream featured the saliva of a dog, it indicates that you are needlessly concerned regarding the loyalty of a friend or colleague; you can stop worrying.
A dream of the saliva of a horse is a forecast of prosperity, and the saliva of other animals suggests that you will shortly find a way to overcome your present obstacles and/or outwit your opposition.
Otherwise, see Drool or Spit.... The Complete Guide to Interpreting Your Dreams
Saliva has a fairly complicated symbolism, as its interpretation is not simple. Occasionally, it is linked to gossip and insults that you are afraid to receive. But, it also has positive meanings. For example, if you drool on yourself, it means that you have the sufficient resources to resolve a conflict, despite that you lack confidence in yourself.... The Big Dictionary of Dreams
The appearance of siblings in your dream may be a direct representation of them or it may actually stand for something else in your life. Some dream analysts believe that all dream characters represent aspects of yourself. So when interpreting dreams that feature images of your siblings, try to bear in mind these different layers of potential meaning. A dream in which your brother or sister is seen in a negative light may denote unresolved childhood feelings towards that sibling in waking life. According to Jung, dreams of a sibling often recall childhood competition for our parent’s love and the dream death of a sibling may show how intense this rivalry is. However, as even Freud suggested, this rivalry may be just a memory and may not relate to your waking relationship with your brother or sister. Dreams in which you are arguing or fighting with your sibling suggest feelings of doubt and insecurity, perhaps as to whether you were loved enough within your family.
Bear in mind that in dreams, siblings can also represent the shadow. This is because it is easier to project the negative or hidden side of our personality onto another member of the family than it is onto a nonrelative, and siblings tend to be the closest to you in age and experience. Your dreams may be an attempt by your unconscious to resolve this projection before it creates problems in waking life. When dreams of the opposite sex sibling occur, this may also be an expression of your anima or animus archetype. It could represent the tension—or union—of opposites in some way; your dreaming mind may be trying to create harmony and balance in your life by pointing to some aspect of yourself. For example, if your dream sister was incredibly rude, the dream may be highlighting your own feelings of guilt about being rude to some one.
Alternatively, such a dream may be urging you to be more assertive in waking life. The same would apply if you dream of siblings or step-siblings but don’t have any brother or sisters in waking life, or if your sibling behaves completely out of character in the dream.
If your dream casts someone you know as your brother or sister, this may be because you have brotherly or sisterly feelings for them, with all the associations of rivalry and platonic love that such a relationship implies.... The Element Encyclopedia
Any such person, or a runaway horse or rogue elephant, may symbolize what Jung called a ‘complex5 - that is, a part of you that is out of control, has become a law unto itself and threatens to destroy the balance and order of your psyche.... A Dictionary of Dream Symbols